When we eat, carbohydrates in our food are broken down to glucose, the main fuel for all metabolic processes of the body. In healthy individuals, the hormone insulin is well-regulated to allow glucose to enter the cells, powering millions of chemical reactions that keep us thriving.
With diabetes, there is faulty metabolism of glucose in the body, due to the lack of insulin or lack of sensitivity to it, resulting to increased levels of blood sugar and a domino effect of adverse health outcomes.
There are 2 types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. This is usually diagnosed in young people, hence it is also referred to as juvenile diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is developed over time due to the combination of genetic and lifestyle factors such as excessive eating and lack of physical activity that cause the receptors of insulin to lose their sensitivity so that even if insulin is available, glucose is still unable to enter the cell.